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Historically, routine prevaccination testing has not been recommended because it has not generally been found to be cost-effective with regard to vaccination. However, with the availability of antiviral agents to treat chronic HBV infection, new recommendations for identifying persons with chronic HBV infection are being developed. CDC currently recommends that certain populations undergo testing for HBV infection, including:

Hemodialysis patients
Pregnant women
Persons with known or suspected exposure to HBV including:
infants born to HBV-infected mothers
household contacts of HBV-infected persons
persons with known occupational or other exposures to infectious blood or body fluids
Foreign-born persons from countries of high HBV endemicity
HIV-positive persons
 

For these populations, serologic assays for HBsAg and anti-HBs should be used to determine infection or immunity prior to vaccination.

 

Source from CDC
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